Daniel 9:24-27 Study Archive

 

 

The weeks of years, also, which the prophet Daniel had predicted, extending to the leadership of Christ, have been fulfilled

 


DANIEL 9:24-27

Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression


  • 0205: Hippolytus, Commentary on Daniel
    • 2010: T.C. Schmidt, Hippolytus Commentary on Daniel with Notes (pdf)
  • 1677: John Crowne, The Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus Vespasian – Amongst the angel’s pronouncements is the statement “Thy weeks are finish’d.” The phrase derives from Daniel 9. There, the angel Gabriel has come to explain to Daniel the meaning of his visions. Thus, we can clearly link Crowne’s play not simply with Josephus and Suetonious, but also with two of the chief examples of Judeo-Christian apocalyptic literature, Revelation and Daniel. This certainly distinguishes this play from Racine and Otway, whose plays lack anything remotely like this kind of imagery.”
  • 1680: Stephen Charnock, A Discourse of God’s being the Author of Reconciliation (pdf) – The time of his coming was fixed in Jacob’s prophecy about the time of the fall of the Jewish government, Gen. xlix. 10, before the ruin of the second temple, Mall iii.1, after seventy weeks of years from the time of Daniel’s prophecy.
  • 1681: Henry More, A Plain Exposition of Daniel (pdf)
  • 1704: Ägidius Strauch, Breviarium chronologicum – On the epoch of the Last Destruction of Jerusalem – This destruction of Jerusalem happened at the time of the Expiration of the 70 Angelical Weeks, which, according to Dan. c.9 v.24 were determined upon the People and the Holy City
  • 1725: Benjamin Marshall, A Treatise on Daniel’s Seventy Weeks (pdf)
  • 1728: Benjamin Marshall, Three Letters in Further Vindication of Daniel’s Seventy Weeks (pdf)
  • 1733: Isaac Newton, Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of John (pdf)
  • 1755: John St Clair, Observations on Certain Passages in Daniel and the Apocalypse (pdf)
  • 1775: Benjamin Blayney, Daniel’s Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks (pdf)
  • 1804: Hosea Ballou, Notes on the Parables (1822 Ed.) “Will the reader now say that all this may be, and that both Daniel and the Saviour were speaking of the resurrection of mankind to a state of immortal happiness and misery in a future world? To this we reply, when Jesus spoke to his disciples of the destruction of Jerusalem and of the calamities which should shortly come on the Jews, he uses the words of Daniel nearly verbatim, when he speaks of the time of trouble. By this circumstance we are instructed that both Daniel and the Saviour spake of the same time and of the same events, and that time was, when Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans.”
  • 1825: John Stonard, Dissertation on the Seventy Weeks of Daniel (pdf) – As the term certainly ended with the destruction of Jerusalem in AD70, so its commencement was thence computed backwar to the year B.C. 420; at which time we found the prediction met by answerable events.
  • 1826: S.R. Maitland, Commentary on Daniel and Revelation (pdf)
  • 1836: A Literal Translation of the Prophets from Isaiah to Malachi, V4 – Daniel by Wintle
  • 1838: James Farquarson, Commentary on Daniel (pdf)
  • 1843: L.L. Sadler, The Prophecies of Daniel with their Application and Fulfillment (pdf)
  • 1850: Moses Stuart, Commentary on Daniel (pdf)
  • 1851: Samuel Lee, Events and Times of the Visions of Daniel and John (pdf)
  • 1852: Karl Auberlein, Prophecies of Daniel and The Revelation (pdf)
  • 1858: Charles Delano, Man Child Born of the Sun, An Exposition of Daniel and the Apocalypse (pdf)
  • 1858: C.H. Mackintosh, A Great Gap – Daniel 9:20-27 – Plymouth Brethren View 
  • 1864: William Thurman, Curiosity on The Book of Daniel (pdf)
  • 1865: PS Desprez, Daniel, the Apocalypse of the Old Testament (pdf)
  • 1867-81: Henry Cowles, Commentary on the Whole Bible, Commentary on Ezekiel and Daniel (pdf)
  • 1867: Bennet Harvey, Supplement to the Outlines and Exposition of the Apocalypse (pdf) – An idea is prevalent among writers and students of prophecy, that the last of the seventy weeks remains to be fulfilled in the antichrist of the last days. But it is to be observed that the whole of the seventy weeks are required for the coming of the Messiah, and its immediate consequences.
  • 1874: Otto Zöckler, A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Ezekiel, Daniel (pdf) – The interpretation of Josephus, which applieth the prophecy to the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 and to Titus as v. 26, seems to have been accepted, with scarcely an exception, by the later Jews of the Talmudic era and the time immediately subsequent.
  • 1886: J.W. Bosanquet, Messiah the Prince the Inspiration of the Prophecies of Daniel (pdf)
  • 1893: Milton S. Terry, Prophecies of Daniel Expounded (pdf)
  • 1921: Philip Mauro, The Seventy Weeks of Daniel (pdf)
  • 1922: William Witla, Newton’s Daniel and the Apocalypse (pdf)
  • 1990: Frank Basten, An Examination of the Seventh-Day Adventist Interpretation of Two Time Prophecies in the Book of Daniel (pdf)
  • 1991: Fred P. Miller, The Seventy Weeks Prophecy – “Imagine a god who said that “History will look like a statue” and then to match the interpretation you have to draw toes as long as the rest of the statue. Such a statue has to lie on his side because he can not stand on such deformed feet. Since premillennial scholars know that the division of the Roman Empire into 10 kingdoms took place about 500 years after the advent of Jesus of Nazareth and they err in not believing “the little stone” has hit the image in the feet as yet, then they are forced to draw toes that are 1500 years long. The diagram is not actually proportionate however since an honest picture of the toes make them 1 and 1/3 times longer that the complete standing image. The rest of the statue is proportionate to the time periods that each symbolic portion predicted. Surely God did not predict history represented by a freak statue.”2006: Frank Hardy, The Preterist Model for Interpreting Daniel (pdf)
  • 2009: Duncan McKenzie, The Last Half of Daniel’s 70th Week (pdf)
  • 2010: Jeffrey Krause, A Historical Survey of the Daniel’s “Seventy Weeks” and its Complete Fulfillment within the Generation of Christ (pdf)
  • 2017: Daiqing Yuan, Ph.D., Daniel 9:24-27 Revisited Again (pdf) – Outstanding Charts; Rare Interpretations: “We Have Found that the Astronomical Retro-Calculation Validates the Prophecy, and Explained the “Cutting-off” of the Messiah as the Ascension, Not the Triumphal Entry, the Crucifixion, the Resurrection, or the Pentecost.”


Gerard Israël and Jacques Lebar
“When, in the year 70 AD, the legions of Titus besieged and sacked Jerusalem and razed the temple — the symbol of Jewish national independence — they touched off a chain reaction.” (When Jerusalem Burned: The Catastrophic Day when the Romans Destroyed the Great Temple and Jerusalem Itself  (Fr., 1970)

James Tabor
“Here we find a period of “about 40 years” tied to the demise of the Teacher. There is a fragment from Cave 4 (4Q171) that refers to the same period: “A little while and the wicked shall be no more; I will look towards his place but he shall not be there” (Psa 37:10). Interpreted, this concerns all the wicked. At the end of the forty years they shall be blotted out and not an man shall be found on earth.” Here things get a bit prophetically complicated, unless one is steeped in the chronological schemes of the book of Daniel (and Ezekiel)– particularly the “70 weeks” prophecy of Daniel 9. It essentially sets forth a 490 year period, which the DSS community understood neatly as Ten Jubilees, 49 years each. We then find references in various fragments (11QMelch; 4Q390) that attempt to fit the history of the community within this time scheme. The Teacher himself is to arise, as one would expect, “in the first week of the Jubilee that follows the nine Jubilees” (11QMelch), or just over 40 years from the End.” (Dead Messiahs)

Otto Zöckler (1874)
“The interpretation of Josephus, which applieth the prophecy to the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 and to Titus as the [Heb. Nagîd habbar – the coming prince], v.26, seems to have been accepted, with scarcely an exception, by the later Jews of the Talmudic era and the time immediately subsequent. The principal witness to this fact is Jerome (on v. 24 et seq.; T.V., 2 ed. Vallars., p. 694). The “Hebrai” of his day calculated the 490 years or seventy weeks of years from the first year of Darius or B.C. 539 indeed, but none the less assigned their conclusion to the age of Jesus, even finding his death predicted therein (probably in the [Heb. Yîkkareth Mashîach-―messiah shall be cut off], v. 26), since they held that “non erit illius imperium, quod putabat se redemturum” (as it should be read, instead of “quod putabant seretenturos,” which is a later emendation). They also found a prediction of the approach of the Roman army under Vespasian and Titus, in the same place. * It is perhaps to these prophecies of Daniel in a general way that Josephus likewise alludes in the references to an ancient prediction that the city should be destroyed in a civil war, De Bell. Jud., IV. 6,3; VI., 2, 1.)… Ephraem Syrus places the restoration of Jerusalem in the beginning of the seventieth week and the destruction by Titus at its close, without entering on a more careful calculation in other respects.” (Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Ezekiel and Daniel, Schaff ed., Vol. 10, pp. 206,207) – Continues at bottom



“These times were over long ago”
Rabbi Judah, the main compiler of the Talmud
(Regarding Daniel’s prophecy – Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 98b and 97a)

The Targumim of the Megillot
(Lamentations 4) “17 Our eyes still fail to see our help which we expected to come from the Romans, but which turned to naught for us. In hope we watched for the Edomites who were a nation which could not save.  18 They prowled our paths so that we could not walk safely in our open places. We said, “Our end is near; our days are fulfilled,” for our end had come.”  (Targum Lamentations)

Aquila
“On thy people, and on thy sacred city.. For ending disobedience, and for completing transgression. For the fulfilling of their disobedience and the completion of their sin, For the propitiation of their transgression, For the bringing in of everlasting righteousness, And for fulfilling the vision and the prophet. For the anointing of the most consecrated,”  (Quoted in Demonstratio Evangelica (Proof of the Gospel) ;  BOOK VIII)

M. Friedlander
“It is, however, possible that other causes were at work in affecting the mutilation of the national chronology. In the first place there is the interpretation of the 70 weeks in Dan. ix. 24, as denoting 70 x 7 = 490 years, and referring to the number of years from the Babylonian Exile to the Destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem (see Seder ‘Olam, by Alexander Marx, p. x).” (“Some Notes on the Prophecy of Malachi”, in Jews’ College Jubilee Volume, p. 26)

Rabbi Judah (Main Compiler of the Talmud)
“These times were over long ago” (Regarding Daniel’s prophecy – Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 98b and 97a)

Rabbi Moses Abraham Levi
“I have examined and searched all the Holy Scriptures and have not found the time for the coming of Messiah clearly fixed, except in the words of Gabriel to the prophet Daniel, which are written in the 9th chapter of the prophecy of Daniel.”

Samuel Levine (1925) – He is right, by the way..
“Christians, for lack of a better answer, claim that the 70th week will take place when Jesus returns in his second coming as a king.  The problem was caused because Daniel mentioned a total of 70 weeks, and then he specified 7 plus 62, leaving one remaining.  The Christians say that the first 69 weeks were consecutive, then there is at least a 1900 year gap, and sooner or later the 70th week will occur.  This is obviously a very forced explanation, born of desperation.” (You take Jesus, I’ll Take God: How to Refute Christian Missionaries (Los Angeles: Hamoroh Press, 1980)p. 31)



Josephus
“A sufficient proof of this is afforded by the passage, Josephus Arch. 10:1 l, 7, ‘Daniel predicted also the Roman supremacy, and that our country should be desolated by them.’

“Daniel prophesied and wrote about all this many years ago. Similarly we can read in his writings about the way our people came under the yoke of Roman slavery and how our nation was destroyed by the Romans. All these writings Daniel left by God’s command to give to the readers and students of history proof of the great honour God had granted him and to convince the doubters, who close out all possibility of guidance from life, that God still is concerned with the course of history.” (Josephus, Antiquities, X.10 and 11. )



Preteristic references include: The Epistle of Barnabas 16:6; Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies 1:21; Tertullian, Against the Jews 8; Origen, Matthew 24:15; Julius Africanus, Chronography (relevant portions preserved in Eusebius, Preparation for the Gospel 10:10 and Demonstrations of the Gospel 8); Eusebius, Demonstrations 8; Athanasius, Incarnation 40:1

“Vespasian rose to the supreme power, and destroyed Jerusalem, and desolated the holy place.  And that such are the facts of the case, is clear to him that is able to understand, as the prophet said.”

Africanus (160-240)
“The section thus expressed gives much strange information. But here I will make the necessary examination of the times and the matters connected with them. It is clear, then, that the coming of the Christ is foretold as to occur after seventy weeks. For in the time of our Saviour, or after His time, sins are done away and transgressions ended. And by this remission iniquities are blotted out (c) by a propitiation together with unrighteousness, eternal righteousness is published beyond that of the law, visions and prophecies (last) until John, and the Holy of holies is anointed. For these things existed in expectation only before our Saviour’s Coming. And the angel explains we must count the numbers, that is to say the seventy weeks, which are 490 years, from the going forth of the word of answer and from the building of Jerusalem. This took place in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes, King of Persia. For Nehemiah his cup-bearer made the request, (d) and received the answer that Jerusalem should be rebuilt, and the order went forth to carry it out. For till that date the city lay desolate. For when Cyrus after the seventieth year of the Captivity spontaneously allowed every one who wished to return, those with Joshua the High Priest and Zerubbabel went back, and those afterwards with Ezra, and were at first prevented from building the Temple, and the wall of the City, as no order had been given for it; and so |125 there was a delay until Nehemiah and the reign of Artaxerxes and the one hundred and fifteenth year of the Persian Empire. And this was 185 years from the taking of Jerusalem. It was then that King Artaxerxes gave the order (390) for it to be built. And Nehemiah was sent to take charge of the work, and the street and wall were built, as it had been prophesied. And from that date to the coming of Christ is seventy weeks. For if we begin to count from any other point but this, not only the dates will not agree, but many absurdities arise. If, for instance, we begin counting the seventy weeks from Cyrus and the first Mission, the period will be too long by more than a century, if from (b) the day the angel prophesied to Daniel still longer, and longer still if we start from the beginning of the Captivity. For we find the length of the Persian Empire to be 230 years, and of the Macedonian 300, and from then to the sixteenth year of Tiberius Caesar 60 years. And from Artaxerxes to the time of Christ seventy weeks are (c) completed according to Jewish reckoning. For from Nehemiah, who was sent by Artaxerxes to rebuild Jerusalem, in the one hundred and fifteenth year of the Persian Empire, and in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes, and in the fourth year of the eighty-third Olympiad up to that date, which was the second year of the two hundred and second Olympiad, and the sixteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, there are 475 years, or 490 according to Hebrew reckoning. For they reckon years by the course of the moon, I ought to (d) tell you, counting 354 days, while the course of the sun is 365 ¼ days, twelve lunar revolutions, being exceeded by one solar by 11¼ days. Therefore the Greeks and the Jews add three intercalary months to every eighth year. For eight times 11¼ days makes three months. So then 465 years, in eight-year cycles, makes fifty-nine years and three months. Since adding the three intercalary months every eighth year, we have a few days short of fifteen years. And these added (391) to the 475 years complete the seventy weeks.”  (Fifth Book of his Chronography, Quoted in Demonstratio Evangelica (Proof of the Gospel) ;  BOOK VIII)

St. Augustine
“For let us not suppose that the computation of Daniel’s weeks was interfered with by this shortening of those days, or that they were not already at that time complete, but had to be completed afterwards in the end of all things, for Luke most plainly testifies that the prophecy of Daniel was accomplished at the time when Jerusalem was overthrown.” (Matt. 24:22, Golden Chain)

Barnabas
“This abstract discussion of Judaism is the sign of an epoch when the Judaizing controversies were already a thing of the past in the main body of the Church. In settling the date of the letter reference is often made to verses 3-5 of chapter four, where the writer, it is believed, finds the fulfilment of the prophecy of Daniel (Dan. 7:7, sqq.) in the succession of the Roman Emperors of his time.” (New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia)

Clement of Alexandria (150-215)
“And thus Christ became King of the Jews, reigning in Jerusalem in the fulfillment of the seven weeks. And in the sixty and two weeks the whole of Judaea was quiet, and without wars. And Christ our Lord, “the Holy of Holies,” having come and fulfilled the vision and the prophecy, was anointed in His flesh by the Holy Spirit of His Father. In those “sixty and two weeks,” as the prophet said, and “in the one week,” was He Lord. The half of the week Nero held sway, and in the holy city Jerusalem placed the abomination; and in the half of the week he was taken away, and Otho, and Galba, and Vitellius. And Vespasian rose to the supreme power, and destroyed Jerusalem, and desolated the holy place.” (Miscellanies)

“The half of the week Nero held sway, and in the holy city Jerusalem placed the abomination; and in the half of the week he was taken away, and Otho, and Galba, and Vitellius. And Vespasian rose to the supreme power, and destroyed Jerusalem, and desolated the holy place. And that such are the facts of the case, is clear to him that is able to understand, as the prophet (i.e., Daniel) said.” (Miscellanies 1:21)

Eusebius of Caesarea (314)
“And all these things were fulfilled when the seventy weeks were completed at the date of our Saviour’s Coming.”

“I think that the fact that the intermediate period of their primacy, during which they governed, is meant, is shewn by the words, “From the going forth of the answering and the building of Jerusalem, until Christ the governor, is seven weeks and sixty-two weeks.” And the weeks of years make 483 years added together from the reign of Cyrus up to the Roman Empire, when Pompeius (392) the Roman general attacked Jerusalem and took the city by siege, and the whole city became subject to Rome, so that thenceforward it paid taxes, and obeyed the Roman enactments.”

(c) “20. AND while I yet spake and prayed and confessed my sins and the sins of my people Israel, and casting my misery before the holy Mount of my God, 21. and while I yet spake in prayer, behold the man Gabriel, whom I had seen at the beginning came flying, and he touched me about the time of the evening sacrifice. 22. And he instructed me and spake with me, saying, O (d) Daniel, 23. I am now come forth to impart to thee understanding. At the beginning of thy supplication the word came forth, and I am come to tell thee, for thou art a man greatly beloved: therefore consider the matter, understand the vision, for thou art a man greatly beloved. 24. Seventy weeks have been decided on for thy people, and for the holy city, for sin to be ended, and to seal up transgressions, and to blot out iniquities, and to make atonement for iniquities, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal the vision and the prophecy, and to anoint the Most Holy. 25. And thou shalt know and understand, that from the going forth of the command for the answer and for the building of Jerusalem until Christ the Prince shall be seven (382) weeks, and sixty-two weeks; and then it shall return, and the street shall be built, and the wall, and the times shall be exhausted. 26. And after the sixty-two weeks, the Anointing shall be destroyed, and there is no judgment in him, and he shall destroy the city and the sanctuary together with the coming prince; they shall be cut off in a flood, and, to the end of the war which is rapidly completed, in desolations. 27. And one week shall establish the covenant with many: and in the midst of the week my sacrifice and drink-offering shall be taken away: and on the temple shall be an (b) abomination of desolations: and at the end of time shall an end be put to the desolation.”

When the captivity of the Jewish people at Babylon was near its end, the Archangel Gabriel, one of the holy ministers of God, appeared to Daniel as he prayed, and told him that the restoration of Jerusalem was to follow without the slightest delay, and he defines the period after the restoration by numbering the years, and foretells that after the predetermined time it will again be destroyed, and that after the second capture and siege it will no longer have (c) God for its guardian, but will remain desolate, with the worship of the Mosaic Law taken away from it, and another new Covenant with humanity introduced in its place. This was what the Angel Gabriel revealed to the prophet as by secret oracles. So then he says to Daniel”

Instead of, “For sin to be ended, and to seal up transgressions,” Aquila translated, “For ending disobedience, and for completing transgression.” I think that our Saviour’s words to the Jews, “Ye have filled up the measure of your fathers,” are parallel to this.”

“And the people of the governor that cometh will destroy the city and the holy place.” Meaning that the city and the Holy Place arc not only to be ruined by the leader to come, whom I have identified in my interpretation, but also by his people. And you would not be far wrong in saying, too, that the Roman general and his army arc meant by the words before us, where I think the camps of the Roman rulers are meant, who governed the nation from that time, and who destroyed the city of Jerusalem itself, and its ancient venerable Temple. For they were cut off by them as by a flood, and were at once involved in destruction until the war was concluded, so that the prophecy was fulfilled and they suffered utter desolation (400) after their plot against our Saviour, which was followed by their extreme sufferings during the siege. You will find an accurate account of it in the history of Josephus.”

“But after the prophecy of the events that happened to the Jewish nation in the intermediate period between the |135  seven and sixty-two weeks, there follows the prophecy of the new Covenant announced by our Saviour. So when all the intermediate matter between the seven and the sixty-two weeks is finished, there is added, “And he will confirm (b) a Covenant with many one week,” and in half the week the sacrifice and the libation shall be taken away, and on the Holy Place shall come the abomination of desolation, and until the fullness of time fullness shall be given to the desolation. Let us consider how this was fulfilled.” (Demonstratio Evangelica (Proof of the Gospel); Book 8)

Origen of Alexandria (230)
“The weeks of years, also, which the prophet Daniel had predicted, extending to the leadership of Christ, have been fulfilled” (Principles, 4:1:5).

Sulpicius Severus (403)
“But from the restoration of the temple to its destruction, which was completed by Titus under Vespasian, when Augustus was consul, there was a period of four hundred and eighty-three years. That was formerly predicted by Daniel, who announced that from the restoration of the temple to its overthrow there would elapse seventy and nine weeks. Now, from the date of the captivity of the Jews until the time of the restoration of the city, there were two hundred and sixty years. (p. 254, ch. 11)

Symmachus The Ebionite (161-80)
“Against thy people, and thy holy city”

Theodoret (430)
(Closes the period three years and a half after the suffering of Christ) “and so they begin the last week at the baptism of Christ” (Quoted by Willet)



Jacques-Benigne Bossuet
“In the fifteenth year of Tiberius, St. John Baptist appears: JESUS CHRIST receives baptism from that divine harbinger: the eternal father acknowledges his well-beloved son, by a voice from heaven : the Holy Ghost descends upon the Saviour, under the harmless figure of a dove : the whole Trinity manifests itself. There begins, with the Seventieth week of Daniel, the preaching of JESUS CHRIST. This last week was the most important, and the most noted.

Daniel had distinguished it from the rest, as the week, wherein the covenant was to be confirmed, and in the middle of which; tile old sacrifices were to lose their efficacy. We may call it the week of mysteries. In it JESUS CHRIST establishes his mission and doctrine, by numberless miracles, and afterwards by his death. This happened in the fourth year of his ministry, which was also the fourth year of the last week of Daniel; and after this manner is that great week found exactly interfered by the suffering of our Saviour.

Thus the computation of the weeks is easy to be made, or rather is done already. We have only to add to 453 years, which will be found from the 300th year of Rome, and 20th of Artaxerxes, to the beginning of the vulgar era, the 30 years of that era which we fee come down to the fifth year of Tiberius, and the baptism of our Lord ; these two sums will make 483 years : of the seven years which yet remain to complete 490, the fourth, which makes the middle one, is that in which which Jesus Christ died : and all that Daniel prophesied, is visibly contained within the term prescribed. There would even have been no necessity for so much exactness, nor does any thing oblige us to take in so strict a sense the middle marked by Daniel.” (Universal History, pp. 114,115)

William Hales (1747-1831)
“And after the sixty and two weeks, before specified, as the largest division of the 70, was the anointed [leader] cut off judicially, by an iniquitous sentence, in the midst of the one week, which formed the third and last division, and began with our Lord’s Baptism, about A.D. 27.–‘when he was beginning to be thirty years of age,’ and commenced his mission, which lasted three years and half until his crucifixion, about A.D. 31.

“27. During this one week, which ended about A.D. 34 (about the martyrdom of Stephen,) a new covenant was established with many of the Jews, of every class; in the midst of which the Temple sacrifice was virtually abrogated by the all-sufficient sacrifice of the Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the [repentant and believing] world.”

Ernst Hengstenberg
“it was then regarded by the Jews as relating to a still future occurrence — the yet impending conquest and destruction of Jerusalem.” (Com.2, page 584)

Keil and Delitzsch Commentary
“the interpretations may be divided into three principal classes. 1. Most of the church fathers and the older orthodox interpreters find prophesied here the appearance of Christ in the flesh, His death, and the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. 2. The majority of the modern interpreters, on the other hand, refer the whole passage to the time of Antiochus Epiphanes. 3. Finally, some of the church fathers and several modern theologians have interpreted the prophecy eschatologically, as an announcement of the development of the kingdom of God from the end of the Exile on to the perfecting of the kingdom by the second coming of Christ at the end of the days.” (Daniel, p. 336)

Cornelius a Lapide
“The gospel both is, and is called holy, because all the things which it contains are pre-eminently holy. Holy is the birth of Christ by the Holy Spirit, holy is His teaching, holy are His works, holy are His miracles, holy His passion, resurrection and ascension, holy the sending of the Holy Spirit. Daniel 9:24 alludes to this, where it is said that seventy weeks of years must be fulfilled until Christ, that the saint of saints (the holy of holies) may be anointed. That is to say, by this book and in this gospel the prophecy of Daniel about the coming of Christ, who is the holy of holies, is shown to be fulfilled.” (Introduction to Matthew)

Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
“And in half a week he shall cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease; that is, by the war of the Romans upon the Jews: which war, after some commotions, began in the 13th year of Nero , A.D. 67, in the Spring when Vespasian with an army invaded them; and ended in the second year of Vespasian, A.D. 70, in autumn, September 7 when Titus took the city, having burnt the Temple 27 days before: so that it lasted three years and an half.”

“Thus have we in this short Prophecy, a prediction of all the main periods relating to the coming of the Messiah; the time of his birth, that of his death, that of the rejection of the Jews, the duration of the Jewish war whereby he caused the city and sanctuary to be destroyed, and the time of his second coming: and so the interpretation here given is more full and complete and adequate to the design, than if we should restrain it to his first coming only, as Interpreters usually do. We avoid also the doing violence to the language of Daniel, by taking the 7 weeks and 62 weeks for one number. Had that been Daniel’s meaning, he would have said sixty and nine weeks, and not seven weeks and sixty two weeks, a way of numbering used by no nation.”

Blaise Pascal
“709. One must be bold to predict the same thing in so many ways. It was necessary that the four idolatrous or pagan monarchies, the end of the kingdom of Judah, and the seventy weeks, should happen at the same time, and all this before the second temple was destroyed.  (SECTION XI)

722 (cont.). Daniel 9:20. “Whilst I was praying with all my heart, and confessing my sin and the sin of all my people, and prostrating myself before my God, even Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, came to me and touched me about the time of the evening oblation, and he informed me and said, O Daniel, I am now come forth to give thee the knowledge of things. At the beginning of thy supplications I came to shew that which thou didst desire, for thou are greatly beloved: therefore understand the matter, and consider the vision. Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people, and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to abolish iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness; to accomplish the vision and the prophecies, and to anoint the Most Holy. (After which this people shall be no more thy people, nor this city the holy city. The times of wrath shall be passed, and the years of grace shall come for ever.)

“The street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. And after three score and two weeks,” (which have followed the first seven. Christ will then be killed after the sixty-nine weeks, that is to say, in the last week), “the Christ shall be cut off, and a people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary, and overwhelm all, and the end of that war shall accomplish the desolation.”  (SECTION XI)

724. Predictions.–That in the fourth monarchy, before the destruction of the second temple, before the dominion of the Jews was taken away, in the seventieth week of Daniel, during the continuance of the second temple, the heathen should be instructed, and brought to the knowledge of the God worshipped by the Jews; that those who loved Him should be delivered from their enemies, and filled with His fear and love.

And it happened that in the fourth monarchy, before the destruction of the second temple, etc., the heathen in great number worshipped God, and led an angelic life.   (SECTION XI)

Zonaras (11/12th C.)
“commences the period at the 20th year of Artaxerxes Longimanus, and ends the 62 weeks at the death of Hyrcanus. From this point to Christ’s baptism they reckon seven weeks more, and then in the midst of the last week, Messiah was slain; so there remained afterwards three years and a half for the preaching of the Gospel. Eusebius begins the 69 weeks in the sixth year of Darius Itystaspes, and ends them in the first year of Herod, about the death of Hyrcanus. He begins the 70th week at Christ’s baptism, and ends the period three years and a half afterwards. Tertullian, by beginning in the first year of Darius, counts 490 years, to the destruction of Jerusalem.” (Dissertations on Calvin)



F.F. Bruce (1971)
“When the temple area was taken by the Romans, and the sanctuary itself was still burning, the soldiers brought their legionary standards into the sacred precincts, set them up opposite the eastern gate, and offered sacrifice to them there, acclaiming Titus as imperator (victorious commander) as they did so. The Roman custom of offering sacrifice to their standards had already been commented on by a Jewish writer as a symptom of their pagan arrogance, but the offering of such sacrifice in the temple court was the supreme insult to the God of Israel. This action, following as it did the cessation of the daily sacrifice three weeks earlier, must have sensed to many Jews, as it evidently did to Josephus, a new and final fulfillment of Daniel’s vision of a time when the continual burnt offering would be taken away and the abomination of desolation set up” (Bruce, p. 224)

Gary DeMar
“Dispensationalists need a gap between the feet and the toes of Nebuchadnezzar’s statue..”  (Last Days Madness, p. 172)

J. Marcellus Kik
“The only valid objection against this general interpretation is that the destruction of Jerusalem did not occur within the seventieth week – within the period of seven years.  The seventy weeks extended to about 33 A.D. The destruction of Jerusalem, of course, came in 70 A.D.  A close examination of the passage in Daniel does not disclose any definite statement that the people of the prince were to cause this destruction within the seven years.  Within the seven years the destruction of the city was determined by its rejection of Christ and his apostles.  Because of that rejection the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary.” (An Eschatology of Victory 109-110) 

“If the seventieth week were postponed we would still be in our sins!” (An Eschatology of Victory 108)

John Lightfoot (1654)
“Daniel knowing from Jeremies Prophecie, that the seventy years of Captivity were now fully expired, addresseth himself to God by prayer for their return: he receiveth not only a gracious answer to his desire, but a Prediction of what times should pass over his people till the death of Christ; namely, seventy weeks, or seventy times seven years, or four hundred and ninety.  This space of time the Angel divideth into three unequal parts.

1. Seven sevens, or forty nine years, to the finishing of  Jerusalems Walls.
2. Sixty two sevens, or four hundred thirty four years, from that time, till the last seven.
3. The last seven in the latter half of which Christ Preacheth, viz. three years and a half, and then dieth, &c.

The twenty seventh Verse therefore is to be read thus:  He shall confirm the covenant with many in the one week, and in half that week he shall cause Sacrifice and Oblation to cease, &c.  So that from this year to the death of Christ are four hundred ninety years; and there is no cause, because of doubtful Records among the Heathen, to make a doubt of the fixedness of this time, which an Angel of the Lord hath pointed out with so much exactness.”  (Works, 1st. Ed., Vol. 1; Chronology, p. 136)

“[C]hrist now hath three years and a half to live, and to be a publick Minister of the Gospel, as the angel Gabriel had told, Dan. 9.27. that in half of the last sevens of the years there named, he should confirm the Covenant:  R. Jochanan saith, Three years and an half the Divine Glory stood upon the Mount of Olives and cried, Seek the Lord while he may be found. Midr. Till. fol. 10. col. 4.” (Works, 1st. Ed., Vol. 1; Harmony, p. 10)

Samuel Lee (1849)
“The wording of the Hebrew is peculiar here and highly deserving of remark. It stands literally thus, — “Until (the) evening (and) morning, or it may be until the evening of the morning, two thousand and three hundred, and the sanctuary (lit. holiness) shall be sanctified.” Evening and morning, I take here to be a mere periphrasis for a day; and so our translators have taken it, Genesis 1:5. The day here had in view must mark the period of Daniel’s seventieth week — the numbers given above must be understood indefinitely, and as intended to designate a considerable length of time.  This consummation could not be effected by Antiochus Epiphanes: he only suspended the service of the Temple for about three years and a half. By every consideration, therefore, it is evident that the Little Horn of Daniel’s seventh and eighth chapters, is identically the same, and that this symbolized that system of Roman rule which ruined Jerusalem, and then made war upon the sainted servants and followers of the Son of man; and in this he prospered and practiced, until he in his turn fell, as did his predecessors, to rise no more at all. (An Inquiry into the Nature, Progress, and End of Prophecy, p. 168.)

Philip Mauro (1925)
“We understand that the sense in which the death of Christ made an end of sins was that thereby he made a perfect atonement for sins, as written in Hebrews 1:3, ‘when He had by Himself purged our sin,’ and in many like passages.” (The Seventy Week, p 47)

Jim McGuiggan (1978)
“When these ‘seventy weeks’ have ‘run their course’ God will have finished altogether his work with the Jews as a (Mosaic) commonwealth!” (The Book of Daniel, p. 151)

William Whitson (1737)
“This is a very remarkable day indeed, the seventeenth of Panemus, [Tammuz,] A.D. 70, when, according to Daniel’s prediction, 606 years before, the Romans “In half a week caused the sacrifice and oblation to cease,” Dan. ix. 27; for from the month of February, A.D. 66, about which time Vespasian entered on this war, to this very time, was just three years and a half.

“How general the reference of the prophecy then was to a future destruction of the city, appears from the express observation of Josephus, that even the zealots had no doubt of the correctness of this interpretation. The same interpretation is found also in the Babylonian and Jerusalem Gemarah. (P. 215.)

“See Bishop Lloyd’s Tables of Chronology, published by Mr. Marshall, on this year. Nor is it to be omitted, what year nearly confirms this duration of the war, that four years before the war begun was somewhat above seven years five months before the destruction of Jerusalem, ch. 5. sect. 3.” (Wars of the Jews, VI,II,1)



Todd Dennis (1995)
Christ, in response to the question of how many times a man should forgive his brother (Matthew 18:22), responded by saying, “until seventy times seven,” which is the exact amount of time (490 years) in Daniel’s “weeks prophecy”. Considering that the end of that prophecy foretold desolation upon the Jerusalem and the nation, perhaps Jesus implied that there was an end to God’s patience with national Israel. If this was indeed Christ’s intent, then this declaration serves as one of His most chilling notices of Israel’s impending destruction-by-fire.” (Were The Seventy Weeks Fulfilled by AD70?)

Collin Sandler
“The word used for “weeks” is actually TWO words in the original text: shibah and shabuwa.”

In his book “Daniel, Key to Prophetic Revelation,” John Walvoord cites Edward Young’s “The Prophecy Of Daniel”, which noted that Daniel used: “the masculine plural instead of the usual feminine plural. No clear explanation is given except that Young feels ‘it was for the deliberate purpose of calling attention to the fact that the word sevens is employed in an unusual sense.’” This word is found only FIVE times in the O.T., all in the 9th chapter of Daniel, twice in verse 24, twice in verse 25, and once in verse 26. Interestingly, Daniel’s verse 27 uses “shabuwa” (Strong’s 7620).”

However, if you examine a J.P. Green interlinear, you should find FIVE instances of the Hebrew word “shibiym” (“Strong’s” 7657), and TWO instance of “shabuwa”.  According to “Strong’s”, “shibiym” is described as a “multiple [plurl] of 7651”, which is the word “sheba” in feminine gender and “shibah” in masculine gender. “

If I understand the contexts correctly, it appears that the first sixty-nine “shibah” are one chronology, and the seventieth “shabuwa” is a different chronology.  It seems fairly obvious that the seventieth “shabuwa” is a seven-year period, and that the sixty-nine “shibah” are NOT.  Nearly all commentators interpret all seventy periods of time as “shabuwa”, which totals to 490 years.  Literal scripture does NOT support that interpretation.”



C.H. Mackintosh (1858)
“Messiah was rejected, cut off, and had nothing. What then? God signified His sense of this act, by suspending for a time His dispensational dealings with Israel. The course of time is interrupted” (The Lord’s Coming – A Great Gap in Daniel 9)


COMPLETE PASSAGE FROM SCHAFF-LANGE

Otto Zöckler (1874)
1. Jewish exposition in pre-Christian times is united in referring this section [Dn9:24-27] to the Maccabean era of tribulation under Antiochus Epiphanes. This is established beyond controversy by the βδέλςγμα έπομώζεωρ of 1 Macc. 1. 54 which corresponds to [Heb: “shiqqûtsîm meshômem“], v. 27 and in that place denotes the smaller idol-altar (βωμόρ, v. 59) erected by Antiochus Epiphanes on the altar of burnt offerings. It is no less clearly indicated by the manner in which the Sept. renders this paragraph, and supplements it with various additions that obviously relate to the Maccabean period. In this connection the mode of expressing the time indicated at the beginning of v. 26 is especially instructive. “And after threescore and two weeks,‖ reads in that version, “μεηά έπηα και έβδομήκονηα και έξήκονηα δύο,” i.e., after 139 (67 + 62) years. This was doubtless intended to designate the year 139 of the æra of the Seleucidæ (B.C. 174) as the time at which began the apostasy of the Jews who had been seduced by Antiochus; cf. 1 Macc. 1:11 et seq; 2 Macc. 4:9 et seq. See also Weisler, Die 70 Wochen, etc, p. 201; Hävernick, Komment., p. 387 et seq. – several expressions in the New Test. appear to indicate that shortly before the advent of Christ the Jews again began to look for the fulfillment of the prophecy in question in the future; e.g., Luke ii. 38 (cf. v.24) πποζδεσόμενοι λιηπωζιν ΄Ιεποςζλήμ, Matt xi.3 ό έπσόμενορ, a designation of the Messiah that probably originated in a misunderstanding of [Heb: hb‘] in v. 26 (cf. Weisler, p. 150); and also the allusions to the “abomination of desolation” v. 27 contained in the eschatological prophecies uttered by the Saviour (Matt xxiv. 15; Mark xiii, 14) and by St. Paul (2 Thess ii.3 et seq), which could only be understood by their contemporaries, in case of a Messianic character were assigned to the paragraph before us, and consequently in case its fulfillment were not exclusively looked for in the events of the Maccabean period.

Josephus also bears witness that this Messianic eschatological interpretation was correct among the Jews of his day, in the repeated instances where he states, or at least implies, that the terrible incidents connected with the Jewish war and the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans was predicted by the prophet Daniel; e.g., Ant.X.11.7: “Daniel also wrote concerning the Roman government, and that our country should be made utterly desolate by them (όηι αύηων έπημωθήζεηαι);” Die Bell. Jud. IV. 5. 2, where he applies the term “anointed one,” v. 26, and again the expression “anointed one and prince,” v. 25 to the high Priest Ananas whom the Idumæians murdered; and De Bell.Jud. VI. 5. 4, where the mysterious oracle “that when should their city be taken, when their temple should become four-square‖ seems to refer back to v. 27 (where they perhaps read [Heb-rabû„a] instead of [Heb-shabu„a], etc It is less certain whether any direct reference to this section is contained in the celebrated passage, De Bell Jud., VI, 5, 4, ώρ καηά ηόν καιπόν εκείνον άπο ηήρ σώπαρ ηιρ αςηών άπξει ηήρ οίκοςμένηρ. In that case the parallel records in Tacitus Hist., V. 13 and Suet. Vesp. 4, must of course, be likewise rooted in the prophecy of Daniel that is before us. Concerning this question see Hävernick, p. 390, who, however, probably finds too much in the passage, since he refers to the άπξει ηήρ οίκοςμέv directly to the [Heb. Nagîd “prince”] of v. 25 and 26.

2. The interpretation of Josephus, which applies the prophecy of the the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 and to Titus as the [Heb. Nagîd habbar – the coming prince-FB], v.26 seems to have been accepted, with scarcely an exception, by the later Jews of the Talmudic æra and the time immediately subsequent.  The principal witness to this fact is Jerome (on v. 24 et seq.; T.V. 2 ed. Vallars, p. 694). The “Hebræi” of his day calculated the 490 years or seventy weeks of years from the first year of Darius or B.C. 539 indeed, but none the less assigned their conclusion to the age of Jesus, even finding his death predicted therein (probably in the [Heb. Yîkkareth Mashîach-“messiah shall be cut off”], v. 26), since they held that “non erit illius imperium, quod putabat se redemturum” (as it should be read, instead of “quod putabant se retenturos,” which is a later emendation). They also found a prediction of the approach of the Roman army under Vespasian and Titus, in the same place.

Several added even the rising under Barcocheba or the three years‘ (three and a half years) war against Hadrian: “Nec ignoramus, quosdam illorum dicere, quod una hebdomada, de qua scriptum est: confirmabit pactum multis hebdomada una, dividatur Vespasiano et Hadriano, quod juxta historiam Josephi Vespasianus et Titus tribus annis et sex mensibus pacem cum Judæisfecerint. Tres autem anni et sex menses sub Hadriano supputantur, quando Hierusalem amnino subversa est, et Judæorum gens catervatum cæsa, ita ut Judææ quoque finibus pellerentur.”

The two Gemaras also refer this prophecy to the war against Vespasian; the Babylonian in Nasir, c. 5; Sanhed., c. 11, and the Jerusalem in Kelim,c. 9; and several Talmudic and Rabbinical traditions are likewise based on that interpretation, e.g., that the Targumist had neglected to translate the Hagiographa, because it was taught in them that “the Messiah should be cut off” (v. 26, See Lightfoot, Hor. Hebr, ad Luc xix. 11; Schöttgen, Hor. Hebr., p. 211); and that the Messiah actually came at the time when Jerusalem was destroyed and the temple desolated, but as a sufferer and in disguise (Glæsener, De gemin. Jud. Mess., p. 23ss; Corrodi, Krit. Gesch. des Chiliasmus, I. 284 et seq.). It was reserved for the later period of the middle ages to introduce several new and more independent explanations beside this variously modified Messianic interpretation of the prophecy; e.g., by referring the [Heb Mashîach Nagîd – “Messiah (the) Prince”] to Cyrus (Saad, Gaom. Rashi, Jacchiad,), or to Nehemiah (Ibn-Ezra) or the high priest Joshua (Levi b. – Gers). Cf. Müller, Judaism,pp.321, 432 et seq.‘ Carpzov, in his ed. of Raymond Martini‘s Pugio fidei, p. 233. – It was customary to follow the Seder Olam Rabba in reckoning the seventy weeks from the first destruction of the temple to the second; see Abendana, in the Spicileg. ad Michl. Jophi: “Hebdomades hæ sept. sunt septimanæ annorum quadringentorum nonaginta, iidemque sine dubio a devastatione primi ad devastationem secundi templi, quia sept. anni fuere captivitatis Babylonicæ, et quadringenti viginti anni, guidus futura erit domus secunda in structura sua; atque sic majores nostri exposuere in Seder Olam.” By this method of reckoning, the v.25 [Heb. Motsa dabar “going out of the word”], v. 25, is accordingly made to apply to the period of Jeremiah‘s prophecy respecting the seventy years‘ exile or to the year B.C. 588. Ibn-Ezra alone departs from this method, by referring that expression concerning the going forth of the oracle (v.23) to Daniel, and consequently assigning the beginning of the 490 years to the year B.C. 539 and extending the first seven weeks of years belonging to that period, to Nehemiah, the restorer of the temple, or to the twentieth year of Artaxerxes. Concerning these Rabbinical methods of reckoning, and at the same time, concerning their fundamental incorrectness and untenable character in a chronological point of view, cf. Chr. B. Michaelis, Annot. uberior, III, 320 et seq. Individual Rabbins in modern times were convinced of the incorrectness of this usual anti-Messianic interpretation, as appears from the noteworthy expression of the Venetian chief-Rabbin Simon Luzzato, concerning this passage, as recorded by Wolf in the Biblio.

Hebr., III, 1228. According to him, “the consequence of a too extended and profound investigation on the part of Jewish scholars would be that they would all become Christians; for it cannot be denied that according to Daniel‘s limitation of the time, the Messiah must have already appeared. But that Jesus was the true Messiah he felt himself unable to accept as certain.”

3. The Christian expositors of the older times regarded the directly Messianic bearing of the passage as generally incontrovertible, and especially the application of [Heb. Yîkkareth Mashîach – “messiah shall be cut off”] to Christ the crucified, as also the reference of the “restoring and rebuilding” of the city and temple in v. 25 to the establishment of the church of the New Covenant; cf., Barnabas, Ep.,c. 16; γέγπαπηαι γάπ κάί έζηαι εβδομάδερ ζςνηελοςμένηρ, οικοδομηθήζεηαι ναόρ θεού ένδοξωρ έπί ηώ όνομαηι κςπίος, κηλ.  The different exegetes varied exceedingly however, in the mode of reckoning the years. Jerome, on this passage, already mentions nine different methods of explaining them: (1) that of Jul. Africanus, who reckoned the 490 years from Nehemiah, or the 20th year of Artaxerxes, to the death of Christ, but in connection with this committed the error of reckoning by Jewish lunar years (resulting in only 465 solar years); (2) Three different theories of Eusebius, who (a) dates the first sixty-nine weeks from the return of the Jews in the reign of Cyrus to the death of Alexander Jannæus, the high priest and king, and Pompey‘s invasion (B.C. 536 – B.C. 64; thus in Dem. Ev., VIII, 2, 55 et seq); or (b) from the second year of Darius Hystaspis (B.C. 520 to the birth of Christ (ibid, and Chronic. Ol. 184); or, (c) regards the last week as a period of seventy years, and attempts to calculate from the resurrection of Christ; (3) That of Hippolytus, who counted sixty-nine mystical weeks (comprising more than seven years each) from the first year of Cyrus to the incarnation of Christ, and declared that the last mystical week denotes the future period of the antichrist, which is connected with the end of the world; (4) that of Apollinaris of Laodicea, who reckoned the 490 years from the birth of Christ (“ab exitu Verbi,” v. 25), and therefore expected the coming of the antichrist and the end of the world about a century after his day, in the “last week;” (5) that of Clemens Alex. who extended the seventy weeks of years, in the face of all chronology, from the first year of Cyrus to the second year of Vespasian (B.C. 560 – A.D. 70); (6) that of Origen, who denies the possibility of any more exact chronological estimate, and therefore assumes 4900 years instead of 490, reaching from Adam to the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus (not indeed in vol. X. of his Stromata, which Jerome cites, but in his Tract. XXIV, on Matthew c.24); (7) that of Tertullian (adv. Judæos, c.8), who reckons the 437½ years from the first year of Darius Nothus (whom he strangely identifies with Darius Medus) to the birth of Christ, and fifty-two and a half of them from that event to the destruction of Jerusalem, thus obtaining 490.

Jerome himself expresses no opinion respecting the mode of reckoning to be observed, but seems to favor that of Africanus, which he preferred to all the others, and probably not without reason. That method is likewise adopted by Chrystostom, Theodoret, Isodore of Pelusium, Euthymius Zigabenus, and generally by a majority of expositors in the Oriental church, but few of whom assume an independent position. Among the latter are, e.g., Cyril of Jerusalem, (Catech. xii, 19), who attempts to extend the seventy weeks of years from the sixth year of Darius Medus to the birth of Christ but violates historical accuracy by identifying Darius Medus with Darius Hystaspis; Ephraem Syrus who places the restoration of Jerusalem in the beginning of the seventieth week and the destruction by Titus at its close, without entering on a more careful calculation in other respects; Polychronius, a brother of Theodore of Mopsuestia, who reckons the first seven weeks from Darius Medus to the ninth year of Darius Medus to the ninth year of Darius Hystaspis, when Zerubbabel‘ s temple is said to have been completed, the sixty two weeks from the twentieth year of Artaxerxes to the birth of Christ, and the final week from that date to Titus, while the death of Christ falls in its central point; Basil of Seleucia (Orat., 38 in t. 85 of Migne‘s Patrol.), who calculates the first sixty-nine weeks from the completion of the walls of Jerusalem in the twenty-eighth
year of Xerxes (!) to the resurrection of Christ, and identifies the seventieth week with the first seven years after the resurrection, while he declares the abomination of desolation erected in the middle of that week to have been the familiar attempt of Caligula to erect his image in the temple. Among the later expositors of the Latin church, Augustine, following the example of Jerome, avoids every independent and detailed calculation of the seventy weeks. He contents himself with finding a fulfillment of the leading features of the prophecy Dan. ix. 24 et seq., in the earthly work of Christ and in the judgment of Jerusalem, and expressly rejects (especially in Ep. 199 “de fine sæculii”) the opinion of those who looked for two periods of seventy weeks of years, the first of which should reach to Christ‘s advent in the flesh, and the second to the end of the world. This assumption of a double period of seventy weeks of years, or of an Old Test. antitypical fulfilment, was advocated as late as the sixth century by the unknown Arian author of the so-called Opus imperfectum in Matthæum. Sulpicius Severus (Chron, II, 21) extends the sixty-nine weeks from the thirty-second year of Artaxerxes I to Vespasian, or from the restoration of the temple to its second destruction. His contemporary, Julius Hilarianus, appears in his Chronologia s. libellus de mundi duratione (in Migne, t. 13, p. 1098) as the forerunner of the modern critical exposition, in consequence of his denial of the direct Messianic character of the prophecy, whose fulfilment he places in the age of Antiochus and the Maccabees; but he commitst gross chronological blunder of assigning 434 years (=62 weeks) to the interval between the return of the Jews under Zerubbabel and the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes, while the period between B.C. 536 and B.C. 175 really amounts to but 361 years! Prosper Aquitan in his Chronicon adopts the view advocated by Eusebius in the Demonstr. Evangelicon and the Chron. (see supra. No. 2b) and accordingly reckons the sixty-nine weeks from the building of the temple under Darius to Herod the Gr. and the birth of Christ. Finally, the venerable Bede adopts substantially the view of Julius Africanus (Libell. de temporum ratione, c. 7), as does also Thomas Aquinas.”

* It is perhaps to these prophecies of Daniel in a general way that Josephus likewise alludes in the references to an ancient prediction that the city should be destroyed in a civil war, De Bell. Jud., IV. 6,3; VI., 2, 1.)

(Comm in Dan., in Opp., t. XIII. ed. Antwerp). (Lange-Schaff, pp. 205-207)

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